Ambedkar, was voted as the "Greatest Indian" in 2012 by a poll organised by History TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 2 crore votes were cast, making him the most popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, politician, philosopher, anthropologist, historian and economist. As independent India's first law minister, he was principal architect of the Constitution of India. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in 1990.
Earning a law degree and doctorates for his study and research in law, economicsand political science from Columbia University and the London School of Economics, Ambedkar gained a reputation as a scholar and practised law for a few years, later campaigning by publishing journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India's untouchables.
He was born in the town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh). He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai. His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade (Mandangad taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. They belonged to the Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar's ancestors had for long been in the employment of the army of the British East India Company, and, his father served in the Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment.
Belonging to the Kabir Panth, Ramji Sakpal encouraged his children to read the Hindu classics. Although able to attend school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or assistance by the teachers. They werenot allowed to sit inside the class. Even if they needed to drink water somebody from a higher caste would have to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available then he had to go without water, Ambedkar states this situation as "No peon, No Water". He was required to sit on a gunny sack which he had to take home with him.
His original surname Ambavadekar comes from his native village 'Ambavade' in Ratnagiri District. His Brahmin teacher, Mahadev Ambedkar, who was fond of him, changed his surname from 'Ambavadekar' to his own surname 'Ambedkar' in school records.
In 1897, Ambedkar's family moved to Bombay and enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, his marriage to a nine-year old girl, Ramabai, was arranged. In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University of Bombay. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government. In 1913, he moved to the United States on a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for three years under a scheme established by the Gaekwar of Baroda for postgraduate education at Columbia University. He passed his M.A. exam in June 1915, majoring in Economics, with Sociology, History, Philosophy and Anthropology.
He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian Commerce. In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National Dividend of India-A Historic and Analytical Study' for another M.A. and finally he received his Ph.D. in Economics in 1917 for his third thesis, after he left for London. In October 1916 he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray's Inn, and also at the same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started work on a doctoral thesis. His thesis was on "Indian Rupee". At the London School Of Economics he took a Master's degree in 1921 and in 1923 he took his D.Sc.in Economics, and the same year he was called to the Bar by Gray's Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (Ll.D, Columbia, 1952 and Ll.D., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.
Upon India's independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation's first Law Minister, which he accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write India's new Constitution. Granville Austin has described the Indian Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as 'first and foremost a social document'. ... 'The majority of India's constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.'
The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly. He wasappointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952. Ambedkar was an economist by training and until 1921 his career was as a professional economist. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), formed in 1934, was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.
Amartya Sen, a Nobel Prize-winning economist, claims that," Ambedkar is my Father in Economics. He is true celebrated champion of the underprivileged. He deserves more than what he has achieved today. However he was highly controversial figure in his home country,though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever..!!!"
Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue Economics doctorate degree abroad. According to him the industrialization and agricultural industry growth could enhance the economy of the nation. He stressed on money investment in the agricultural industry as the primary industry of India. He supported economic and social development of the society for nations progress. He also emphasised on education, public hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic amenities. His D.Sc. thesis "The problems of Ruppee, its origin and solution (1923)" reveals the factors responsible for Rupee fall. He proved the importance of price stability than exchange stability. He analysed the silver and gold rate exchange and its effect on Indian economy. He found out the reasons for the failure of British Indian economy’s public treasury.
He is creditworthy to establish Finance Commission of India. He contributed in Land Revenue Tax and excise duty policies to stabilize Indian economy. He played an important role in the land reform and the state economic development. Heemphasised on free economy with stable rupee which India has adopted recently. Headvocated the birth control rate to develop the Indian economy. This policy has beenadopted by Indian government as national policy for family planning. Heemphasised on equal rights to women for economic development. He laid the foundation of industrial relations after Indian independence.
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This reject of TOP FINE ACADEMY made THE GATES OF HELL, THE THINKER, AGE OF BRONZE, THE KISS & went on to become a great sculptor!!!