The International Organization for Standardizationknown as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The three official languages of the ISO are English, French and Russian. The organization's name would have different acronyms in different languages – e.g. IOS is English, OIN in French – so it adopted the short name ISO, based on the Greek word isos (ἴσος, meaning equal). The name ISO and the logo are both registered trademarks, and their use is restricted.
The organization today known as ISO began in 1926 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). It was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization; the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.
ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives. The organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget. The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards.
ISO has formed joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical, electronic and related technologies. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to "Develop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards". ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of "Standardization in the field of Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources".
ISO has 164 national members, out of the 206 total countries in the world. ISO has three membership categories:
Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of:
International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:
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